CBD – Cannabidiol
General information / Trivia:
- CBD is one of >113 Cannabinoids contained in the hemp and Cannabis plant
- Hemp is one the earliest plants ever cultivated.
- It was cultivated for instance in Japan since the pre-Neolithic period to be used for fibre and food
- Until the Cannabis prohibition in 1925, hemp and Cannabis were integral parts of everyday life in most countries around the world
- In recent years, scientific studies on the effect of diverse Cannabinoids were picked up again
Nowadays, different parts of the hemp plants are used to produce certain products:
hemp seed oil is derived from the seeds of the plant, it does not contain any active ingredients such as CBD;
hemp fabric is made of the plant’s fibres;
active ingredients such as CBD are derived from the leaves and stems or flowers of the plant
- CBD is used in nutritional supplements, cosmetic and skincare products as well as certain prescription drugs
Effects on Skin:
- Antioxidant effects by interrupting free radical chain reactions, transforming free radicals into less active forms of by capturing them.
- Anti-inflammatory effects: CBD inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and enhances the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines.
- Sebum reduction: CBD was shown to greatly reduce sebum production. Excessive sebum production is oftentimes a cause of Acne.
- Experience of pain: Cannabinoids can release endogenous opioids that might reduce the experience of pain.
The skin has its own endocannabinoid system (ECS) that is involved in many regulatory functions of the skin such as hair growth, keeping the skin barrier intact, immune responses and processing of sensory input such as pain. (Info: endocannabinoids are cannabinoids that the body produces on its own, their existence has nothing to do with Cannabinoids found in the hemp or cannabis plant; phytocannabinoids are cannabinoids occurring in plants, such as hemp or cannabis that can interact with the ECS.)
The endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are part of the skin, particularly in hair follicles, keratinocytes, sebaceous glands, nerve fibres, melanocytes, fibroblast and adipocytes.
Studies show that a dysregulation to the endogenous saebaceous pathway, for instance by over stimulating the CB2 receptor can lead to the development of acne and seborrhea.
CBD has only a low affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but rather targets TRP channels. The latter are important ion canals that help the skin to collect and process information such as temperature, pain and itching. TRP channels also play a key role in processing of active ingredients. They are the most prominent non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptors that respond to natural and synthetic cannabinoids.
By activating TRPV 1,3, and 4 CBD inhibits sebum secretion. Through A2A adenosine receptors, CBD exerts its anti-inflammatory effects. Additionally, CBD inhibits keratinocyte proliferation, which is a leading cause of the inflammatory disease Psoriasis.
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